JupiterOne Data Model

The JupiterOne Data Model is a reference model used to describe digital resources and the complex interconnections among all the resources in a technology organization as an entity-relationship graph.

The data model is defined by a set of Entities and their Relationships. It represents a reference model, not a strict or rigid structure.

Entity

An Entity is a node/vertex in the graph that represents a resource within your digital infrastructure.

Class and Type of an Entity

Each Entity has a specific type that defines what that entity is, and is assigned one or more higher level class that represents a more abstract categorization or labeling of the entity in the perspective of security and technical operations.

Type

The type property represents the specific type that entity is as defined by the source. For example, an AWS resource may be of type aws_instance or aws_s3_bucket or aws_iam_user.

Class

The class of an entity is considered an abstract, super-type that defines what that entity is within the general framework of IT and security operations. In the above example, an aws_instance entity has a class of Host, while an aws_s3_bucket is a DataStore, and an aws_iam_user a User.

Common Entity Properties

Most Entities will have the following common properties.

Property Type Description
name string Name of this entity.
displayName string How this entity is labeled in the UI, e.g. a person's preferred name or an AWS account alias. Defaults to the same value as name.
summary string A summary / short description of this entity.
description string An extended description of this entity.
classification string The sensitivity of the data; should match an organization's data classification scheme. For example: "critical", "confidential", "internal", or "public".
criticality integer A number that represents the value or criticality of this entity, usually on a scale between 1-10.
risk integer The risk level of this entity, on a scale between 1-10.
trust integer The trust level of this entity, on a scale between 1-10.
owner string The owner of this entity. This could reference the name/email of an individual, or the reference identifier/key to another entity in the graph as the owner.
complianceStatus number The compliance status of the entity, as a percentage of compliancy.
status string Status of this entity set by the external source system or by a user, e.g. "Active", "Inactive", "Decommissioned".
isActive boolean Indicates if this entity is currently active.
isPublic boolean Indicates if this entity is a public-facing resource (e.g. a public IP or public DNS record) or if the entity is publicly accessible (e.g. a subnet that has a gateway and route to the Internet). Default is false.
isValidated boolean Indicates if this entity has been validated as known/valid.
isTemporary boolean Indicates if this entity is a temporary resource, such as an EC2 instance started by ECS, or a temp employee.
webLink string Hyperlink to the source. For example: https://console.aws.amazon.com/iam/home#/roles/Administrator
tag.* string Named tags assigned to the entity (i.e., tag.NameTag, tag.AnotherTag). There could be multiple of these.
tags string[] An array of hashtags.
notes string[] User provided notes about this entity.

Class Specific Entity Properties

Each specific class of Entity also has its own defined properties. For example, a Person entity will have properties including firstName and lastName, while a Device entity may have properties such as hardwareVendor, hardwareModel, and hardwareSerial.

Custom Properties

Entities can also have custom properties that are specific to the type of that entity, defined by the source system where the resource belongs to, or defined by the individual or team managing the resource.

Defined Entities

Here is a list of reference entities defined by the JupiterOne Data Model, each with its own defined set of properties in addition to the shared common properties:

Entity Description
AccessKey A key used to grant access, such as ssh-key, access-key, api-key/token, mfa-token/device, etc. Extends the Key entity class.
AccessPolicy A policy for access control assigned to a Host, Role, User, UserGroup, or Service.
AccessRole An access control role mapped to a Principal (e.g. user, group, or service).
Account An organizational account for a service or a set of services (e.g. AWS, Okta, Bitbucket Team, Google G-Suite account, Apple Developer Account). Each Account should be connected to a Service.
Application A software product or application.
Assessment An object to represent an assessment, including both compliance assessment such as a HIPAA Risk Assessment or a technical assessment such as a Penetration Testing. Each assessment should have findings (e.g. Vulnerability or Risk) associated.
Certificate A digital Certificate such as an SSL or S/MIME certificate.
Cluster A cluster of compute or database resources/workloads.
CodeCommit A code commit to a repo. The commit id is captured in the _id property of the Entity.
CodeDeploy A code deploy job.
CodeModule An application code module/library. Such as an npm-module or java-library.
CodeRepo A source code repository. A CodeRepo is also a DataRepository therefore should carry all the required properties of DataRepository.
CodeReview A code review (in git, a pull request). A CodeReview is also an official Record.
Control A security or IT Control. This is most likely an additional Class applied to a Service (e.g. Okta SSO), a Device (e.g. a physical firewall), or a HostAgent (e.g. Carbon Black CbDefense Agent).
ControlPolicy An operational or configuration compliance policy with technical specifications / rules that governs (i.e. enforces, evaluates, or monitors) a security control or IT system.
CryptoKey A key used to perform cryptographic functions, such as an encryption key. Extends the Key entity class.
DataObject An individual data object, such as an aws-s3-object, sharepoint-document, source-code, or a file (on disk). The exact data type is described in the _type property of the Entity.
DataStore A virtual repository where data is stored, such as aws-s3-bucket, aws-rds-cluster, aws-dynamodb-table, bitbucket-repo, sharepoint-site, docker-registry. The exact type is described in the _type property of the Entity.
Database A database cluster/instance.
Device A physical device or media, such as a server, laptop, workstation, smartphone, tablet, router, firewall, switch, wifi-access-point, usb-drive, etc. The exact data type is described in the _type property of the Entity.
Firewall A piece of hardware or software that protects a network/host/application.
Framework An object to represent a standard compliance or technical security framework.
Function A virtual application function. For example, an aws_lambda_function, azure_function, or google_cloud_function
Gateway A gateway/proxy that can be a system/appliance or software service, such as a network router or application gateway.
Group A defined, generic group of Entities. This could represent a group of Resources, Users, Workloads, DataRepositories, etc.
Host A system that has an operating system running on it. The exact host type is described in the _type property of the Entity. The UUID of the host should be captured in the _id property of the Entity.
HostAgent A software agent or sensor that runs on a host/endpoint.
Incident An operational or security incident.
IpAddress An re-assignable IpAddress resource entity. Do not create an entity for an IP Address configured on a Host. Use this only if the IP Address is a reusable resource, such as an Elastic IP Address object in AWS.
Key An ssh-key, access-key, api-key/token, pgp-key, etc.
Network A network, such as an AWS VPC, subnet, or VLAN.
NetworkInterface An re-assignable software defined network interface resource entity. Do not create an entity for a network interface configured on a Host. Use this only if the network interface is a reusable resource, such as an Elastic Network Interface object in AWS.
Organization An organization, such as a company (e.g. Amazon) or a business unit (e.g. HR). An organization can be internal or external. Note that there is a more specific Vendor class.
PasswordPolicy A password policy is a specific ControlPolicy. It is separately defined because of its pervasive usage across digital environments and the well known properties (such as length and complexity) unique to a password policy.
Person An entity that represents an actual person, such as an employee of an organization.
Policy A written policy documentation.
Procedure A written procedure and control documentation. A Procedure typically IMPLEMENTS a parent Policy. An actual Control further IMPLEMENTS a Procedure.
Project A software development project. Can be used for other generic projects as well but the defined properties are geared towards software development projects.
Record An official record (e.g. Risk), or a written document (e.g. Policy/Procedure), or a reference entity (e.g. Vulnerability/Weakness). This could be a jira-issue, a bitbucket-pull-request, a jenkins-build, a policy document, a vulnerability finding, a documented risk, or even a paper-record. The exact record type is captured in the _type property of the Entity.
Resource A generic assignable resource. A resource is typically non-functional by itself unless used by or attached to a host or workload.
Risk An object that represents an identified Risk as the result of an Assessment. The collection of Risk objects in JupiterOne make up the Risk Register. A Control may have a MITIGATES relationship to a Risk.
Service A service provided by a vendor.
Site The physical location of an organization. A Person (i.e. employee) would typically has a relationship to a Site (i.e. located_at or work_at). Also used as the abstract reference to AWS Regions.
Team A team consists of multiple member Person entities. For example, the Development team or the Security team.
Training A security training module.
User A user account/login to access certain systems and/or services. Examples include okta-user, aws-iam-user, ssh-user, local-user (on a host), etc.
UserGroup A user group, typically associated with some type of access control, such as a group in Okta or in Office365. If a UserGroup has an access policy attached, and all member Users of the UserGroup would inherit the policy.
Vendor An external organization that is a vendor or service provider.
Vulnerability A security vulnerability finding (application or system or infrastructure, e.g. a CVE). A single vulnerability may impact multiple resources. The IMPACTS relationship between the Vulnerability and the resource entity that was impacted serves as the record of the finding. The IMPACTS relationship carries properties such as 'identifiedOn', 'remediatedOn', 'remediationDueOn', 'issueLink', etc.
Weakness A security weakness (e.g. CWE).
Workload A virtual compute instance, it could be an aws-ec2-instance, a docker-container, an aws-lambda-function, an application-process, or a vmware-instance. The exact workload type is described in the _type property of the Entity.

Special Entities

There are three special entities defined. These are singleton entities.

Entity Description
Everyone The global UserGroup that represents "everyone" publicly.
Internet The Internet - '0.0.0.0/0'.
Root The entity that represents the top level organization.

Relationships

A Relationship is the edge between two Entity nodes in the graph. The _class of the relationship should be, in most cases, a generic descriptive verb, such as HAS or IMPLEMENTS.

Relationships can also carry their own properties.

For example, CodeRepo -- DEPLOYED_TO -> Host may have version as a property on the DEPLOYED_TO relationship. This represents the mapping between a code repo to multiple deployment targets, while one deployment may be of a different version of the code than another. Storing the version as a relationship property allows us to void duplicate instances of the code repo entity to be created to represent different versions.

Relationships have the same metadata properties as entities, which are managed by the integration providers.

Example defined Relationships between abstract Entity Classes

HAS / CONTAINS

Account         -- HAS ->             User
Account         -- HAS ->             UserGroup
Account         -- HAS ->             AccessRole
Account         -- HAS ->             Resource
CodeRepo        -- HAS ->             Vulnerability
Host            -- HAS ->             Vulnerability
Organization    -- HAS ->             Site
Organization    -- HAS ->             Organization (e.g. a business unit)
Application     -- HAS ->             Vulnerability
CodeRepo        -- HAS ->             Vulnerability
Host            -- HAS ->             Vulnerability
Service         -- HAS ->             Vulnerability
Site            -- HAS ->             Network
Site            -- HAS ->             Site
UserGroup       -- HAS ->             User
Network         -- CONTAINS ->        Host
Network         -- CONTAINS ->        Database
Network         -- CONTAINS ->        Network (e.g. a subnet)

IS / OWNS

User            -- IS ->              Person
Vulnerability   -- IS ->              Vulnerability (e.g. a Snyk Vuln IS a CVE)
Person          -- OWNS ->            Device

EXPLOITS / IMPACTS

Vulnerability   -- EXPLOITS ->        Weakness
Vulnerability   -- IMPACTS  ->        CodeRepo | Application

USES

Host            -- USES ->            Resource (e.g. aws_instance USES aws_ebs_volume)

CONNECTS / TRIGGERS / EXTENDS

Application     -- CONNECTS ->        Account
Gateway         -- CONNECTS ->        Network
Gateway         -- TRIGGERS ->        Function
HOST            -- EXTENDS  ->        Resource

IMPLEMENTS / MITIGATES

Procedure       -- IMPLEMENTS ->      Policy
Control         -- IMPLEMENTS ->      Policy
Control         -- MITIGATES  ->      Risk

MANAGES

Person          -- MANAGES ->         Person
Person          -- MANAGES ->         Organization
Person          -- MANAGES ->         Team
User            -- MANAGES ->         Account
User            -- MANAGES ->         UserGroup
ControlPolicy   -- MANAGES ->         Control
AccessPolicy    -- MANAGES ->         AccessRole

EVALUATES / MONITORS / PROTECTS

ControlPolicy   -- EVALUATES ->       <any entity>
HostAgent       -- MONITORS  ->       Host
HostAgent       -- PROTECTS  ->       Host

TRUSTS

AccessRole      -- TRUSTS ->          AccessRole
AccessRole      -- TRUSTS ->          Service
AccessRole      -- TRUSTS ->          Account

ASSIGNED

User            -- ASSIGNED ->        Application
User            -- ASSIGNED ->        AccessRole
UserGroup       -- ASSIGNED ->        AccessRole

IDENTIFIED / PERFORMED / COMPLETED

Person          -- PERFORMED  ->      Assessment
Person          -- COMPLETED  ->      Training
Assessment      -- IDENTIFIED ->      Risk
Assessment      -- IDENTIFIED ->      Vulnerability

PROVIDES

Vendor          -- PROVIDES ->        Service

CONTRIBUTES_TO

User            -- CONTRIBUTES_TO ->  CodeRepo

OPENED

User            -- OPENED   ->        CodeReview (i.e. PR)

DEPLOYED_TO

CodeRepo        -- DEPLOYED_TO ->     Account
CodeRepo        -- DEPLOYED_TO ->     Host
CodeRepo        -- DEPLOYED_TO ->     Container
CodeRepo        -- DEPLOYED_TO ->     Function

What does this look like?

The diagram below is an abstract illustration of the entities and relationships defined by the data model.

../_images/data-model.pngdata-model